Poker Cheating Techniques
Before poker becames so popular and mainstream many people had the misconception that cheating was rife within the sport, images of paddle-boat steamers and cowboys with guns spring to mind…. While it may certainly have gone on, cheating was less common than people think. Once labelled a “cheat” it would almost be impossible for the player to then get a game, unless he travelled. However, while TV exposure and the rise of the Poker Superstars has raised the profile and respectability of our beloved game, there still remains a tiny minority of individuals wanting your cash without playing on a level playing field. Here’s a guide to protect yourself against the unscrupulous and shady characters on a rare occasion that you’d come across them.
Best Hand Play
Best hand play is perhaps one of the more subtle methods of cheating in the poker world today and when performed well, it is very difficult to detect even for experienced players. It involves two or more players communicating their hand values to each other and the other weaker hands who would have otherwise played then drop out and just let the best hand play.
This has the effect of denying opponents pot odds for hands that they are playing and substantially reduces the size of the pots that your opponents win. It is very subtle in nature because rather than two or more players always being involved within the same round, only one team member is operating at any one time.
Say for instance that your team member has AQ under the gun in limit hold’em but you are sitting in the cut-off with AK. A player in middle position raises and you re-raise with the AK. Your team member has already folded his AQ because he has let your AK play. So now if the player who raised has a big premium pair for instance and it holds up against your AK, they are denied the extra money that the AQ would have put into the pot because they have folded.
This kind of play can have an almost “starvation” effect on other players because it reduces the average pot size that they win. The economics of poker state that in order to win, you must earn an amount of money that is above and beyond your cost of doing business ( Blinds/Antes/Rake etc ), the best hand play helps to prevent opponents from doing that.
- How to spot it
Like I said, when done well, it is very difficult to spot. One of the things to look out for and keep a check of is who is on your table and how often. It is also worth noting which players never seem to play hands together. Apart from this, there is really nothing else that you can do to stop this kind of cheating.
Spotting is the process of placing a passive player ( not necessarily a team member ) into a game so that if need be, you can change seats if you need to get position over a certain opponent or you want to stop them from getting position over you. In many card rooms, this may not be classed as cheating but more like angle shooting. In my opinion, it is cheating plain and simple because the other players would not allow it if they knew what was happening.
The “player” buys in for the absolute minimum with the other players money and merely occupies a seat so that at just the right time, a strategic seat change can be effected thus increasing the real players theoretical earn rate in this game.
The course of the game is being interrupted by this minimum buy-in non competing passive player. This practice would be far more effective in high stakes big bet poker especially in games where position is crucial like pot limit Omaha and no-limit hold’em for instance. Doyle Brunson once remarked that he could beat any no-limit poker game in the world without even looking at his cards if he could be guaranteed position all night long and I certainly think that it’s true not just with Brunson, but with any good no-limit player. This is why it is cheating and there are no two ways about it.
- How to spot it
The answer to this is really in the above description. If you happen to notice someone playing really tight and then concede their seat to an opponent at some later stage then beware. This is especially the case if there is no time delay between the tight player getting up and the other player taking their seat.
Chip dumping is done primarily in tournament poker but can also be used in cash play as well in certain situations. This is one of the most common forms of cheating in tournament poker. It involves two or more players basically playing together and one player who has the larger stack “transferring” their chips to their associate during the course of a hand in order to be in a position to assist him later on in the tournament.
In tournaments, it is a huge edge especially on a final table if there is a player on that table who will not play hard against you and will refuse to knock you out. Imagine for just one minute how potentially destructive this tactic could be and how much of a disadvantage the other players would be at on this table. A weaker player could pass their chips to a much stronger team member giving them a greater probability of winning the tournament, this is also known as “feeding” where I come from.
The basic way to play this is for the two team members to get involved with each other in a raised pot and the “feeder” to drop out of the hand irrespective of it’s strength.
- How to spot it
This can be very difficult to spot when it is done well. You really need to pick up a pattern here by observing the same two players doing it more than once. Observing something only once is hardly proof and as long as the players are not too blatant, all you are left with is the suspicion that something did not feel right.
Once again this involves more than one player as many cheating techniques often do. This is the process of catching one or more players in the middle with hands that are inferior to a known team members hand. Lets say for instance that a team player has 8-4 in early position in limit hold’em, a hand they would normally pass. They limp in hoping to entice other players into the pot after them. They also know that the other team member has been dealt pocket aces in the cut-off. Two other middle position players also limp because they maybe anticipate a multi-way pot. The aces raise but now the 8-4 re-raises thus sweetening the pot for the premium pair. If the other two hands drop out then it has still earned money and even if they call, the aces have an awful lot of equity in this hand.
The aces end up being in the pot with three other players, one of which is a team member. If the 8-4 flops something wonderful then the aces can assist him instead. More often than not the aces will be the superior hand and this play does not have to work every time for it to be a winner. Aces against two other hands will win more often than one hand in three and this gives the hand a positive expectation.
- How to spot it
Beware of the same players being in raised pots, they may be loose maniac types but then again they may not. When the same two players repeatedly show pre-flop strength only for one player to meekly fold at some later point in the hand, beware because this may indeed be happening.
Once again this is a technique that can be used in tournaments but the bigger the team, the more effective it is. Channelling is the process of getting as many team members through to the latter stages of a tournament so that many of the other cheating team play techniques can be utilised. For instance, let’s take a very large tournament with 75 tables and over 700 players. This ten man team play the tournament extremely tightly unless they have premium hands.
What tends to happen is that the wilder and reckless players start to bite the dust and the field begins to compress. This means that as players are eliminated and tables are removed, the likelihood of team members being located to the same table increases. If several of the team members have caught some big hands along the way, then it is quite possible for half the team to still be around with only two tables left.
One of the disadvantages with this method of cheating is that it essentially makes it more difficult for any team member to accumulate a very large stack early on. This is because of the strategy that they are working to. However, the goal is survival and when this “scam” is executed well, it can be very effective. On a very good day, half of the final table could be team members.
- How to spot it
I think that it becomes very important to keep your “ear to the ground” with this one. One of the problems with this technique is that the larger the team, the more difficult it is to keep every member of that team happy and contented. This means that sometimes certain disgruntled team members can end up saying more than they should to someone. You must remember that many rumours are based on something that is tangible. Once you start to gather evidence of other forms of cheating, then further investigation could reveal a much larger and far more complex operation than was first envisaged.
Soft playing is perhaps one of the most common forms of cheating that there is. Of course depending on where you play poker and with whom, this may not even be considered cheating at all. Soft playing is the act of either checking or under betting the best or probable best hand with the sole intention of refusing to take money off someone. Quite often it is done relatively harmlessly like if you checked the nuts on the river because you thought that you were maybe in with a chance with the attractive new female player that just sat down opposite you.
On many occasions though it is done between unscrupulous individuals with ulterior motives. I once sat in a ten handed game where there was in fact three groups of friends who all refused to play hard against each other. It was rather amusing to watch and can be used to your advantage in certain circumstances if you are quick to figure out what is actually happening. In most games however, the players owe it to the others to play their own hands in as sporting and as ethical a way as possible.
- How to spot it
Fortunately, this also happens to be one of the easiest to spot simply because of the fact that soft playing leads to more showdowns so you can figure out what has happened. You could try reporting this to the card room supervisor or online card room but beware if it is a private cash game. This is because in certain games, this practice will not be frowned upon and could be even encouraged.
Signalling can either be used as a cheating technique all by itself but more often than not, it is used in conjunction with some of the other methods that have been described. The ways in which cheats actually signal to each other can vary enormously. If it is blatantly obvious even to a blind man, then it is not much of a problem because these amateurs will soon get caught. Unfortunately, professional cheats take many more precautions and are far more subtle.
Cheats do not like to use methods that are easily detected by others. Using chips to signal hand strength is one way that can be used. The number of chips that is placed in a certain stack in a certain location can be an easy indicator of hand strength. How the cards are placed on the table is also another method amongst cheats. Signals don’t always have to be visual either, they can just as easily be audible in nature. Scraping a chair leg across the floor, restacking chips with more force, sniffing and so on. They have all been used by professional cheats and this will continue.
The number of ways that individuals can pass information to each other during a hand of poker is limited only by that persons imagination.
- How to spot it
The bad news is that unless this is being done by complete morons, there really isn’t any real way to detect signalling if it is being done by individuals who are taking great care not to get caught. The key is in the preparation and if all parties are well drilled in the techniques then it can be impossible to spot in some cases. I have been in private cash games where I have been certain in my own mind that signals were being passed. It is just a feeling and very hard to explain but I always try and listen to that voice in my head whenever it is trying to tell me something…because it has nearly always been right in the past.
People will always look for angles in life and the gambling world is certainly no different. Many of the “opportunistic” tactics fall into a grey area where some of them could just as easily be labelled as gamesmanship. Like the player who motions and calls all in without physically moving any of their chips forward. This takes advantage of the careless and unobservant player who maybe has been listening to his walkman or some other distraction. The guy raises from the small blind to take the big blind who had telegraphed a fold only to reel in horror when he realises that some one is all in in front of him.
Or how about the player who deliberately conceals his cards to deceive opponents that he is still in the hand. Many players do this in order to get the next player to act out of turn. A player checks believing that he is first to speak and the action is on him. The player who really was first to act has concealed his cards but he now has information that the player to his left is checking. This means that a bet by him is now much more likely to take the pot as he essentially only has one player to get through now and not two if this is a three way pot for instance.
This little angle leads to entire pots being won especially against careless or inexperienced opponents. It is also a reason why many players cannot win on the internet. They cannot transfer their live game antics to an online environment. Many poker players would have no earn rate at all if they attempted to play the game straight.
- How to spot it
Extreme caution is advised at all times especially when playing live poker. Sad to say though that many inexperienced players will be meat and drink to some of these “anglers”. They prey on the weak and the unwary and one mistake is all that they need in certain games. Always expect someone to cheat you and be on the lookout. After all, poker is played for money and some people will do whatever is necessary in order to get their hands on it. If you do not believe that then you do not understand human nature very well.
This article has been reproduced with permission by Carl ‘The Dean’ Sampson. Carl, a professional Online Poker Player writes for Poker Pro Europe, World Poker Tour and Online Poker Pro as well as being the author of 2 paperback books!